Investing and non inverting amplifier using ic-7410 mars mod

Published 05.08.2021 в Analyse forex euro franc suisse

investing and non inverting amplifier using ic-7410 mars mod

AMPLIFIER OUTPUT: Square wave at 20Hz on H.F with amplitude proportional to square of input I.C. memory giving a "non -blinking" display. The second and final part of David White's mosfet power amplifier describes suitable 7 mile range no circuit diagrams due to MOD, new once £ 50, us? ing difficulty finding a dealer who handles the op -amp IC's required. Another problem is that no pin numbers are shown for the IC in the schematic. INFO CRYPTO

Stays on for 10 min at a time. If goes off, just double-click power on button and back to work. Can be bypassed with a shutdown circuit board hack as the capability is implemented physically and not in board firmware. Two units each lasted less than a year, then started giving erratic measurements.

Auto-power-off APO feature is annoying as it is based off a timer whether unit is in use or not. Once auto-power goes off APO , it requires twisting the dial back to Off to restart, inconvenient when in the midst of measurements. Recommended probes are test hook clip aka minigrabber or retractable hook clip , as these can grip thin resistor wires easily, and hold themselves in place, freeing up both your hands.

Less recommended options are pointed probe and alligator clip. They are able to be operated by general as young as 3. Grabber probe cables provide great hands-on circuit practice and visual demonstration of connections between components, for younger kids in a learning session. Cheap cables not listed can be problematic.

If cables are fine, it may be your multimeter. Robust grabber probes with smooth action. Each grabber probe has a cap which can be removed to allow soldering any wire to the end to make custom test probles. Essential for building circuits using hookup or flexi-wire instead of pre-made jumper wires.

Use with a twisting action for smooth cutting and stripping. Has a crimper slot as well for crimping wire into pin headers. Makes it easy to bend hookup wire into jumper wires, insert components into solderless breadboard, and as a crimp tool for crimping wire into header pins. Wear safety eye-glasses when doing this, as the ends are often hard and fly off with force and at random directions.

If it gets blunt after a time, discard and get a new one. Electronics requires focusing your eyes on tiny parts and thin leads, and requires precision insertions. The portability of a headlamp means you can work anywhere with the same quality illumination. Recommend to buy two, so you always have one ready to use while the other is charging.

Great for illumination while doing small precision work. Removes requirement for a bright desk-lamp. Better safe than sorry. Your own eye would also be a shame to lose. Soldering Kit Build your own! The following tips may help. Allow for time! Your assembly time will decrease dramatically as you get more proficient practice!

Once proficient, rule of thumb might be c. So a key keyboard takes connctions takes c. When starting out, it might take 6 min per connection to figure everything out, so a 20 connection project may take 2 hours of assembly time.

By your 4th board you should be close to reasonably proficient. Everything else in the kit is not needed. Accuracy is within 0. They all ekprecision also allow you to measure unmarked capacitors, verify capacitor tolerance, measure cable capacitance, select and match capacitors for critical applications, perform quality assurance, measure complex networks, set trimmer capacitors and check capacitance in switches and other components.

Options include the CF test fixture for volume sorting; and for the and , rechargeable batteries, AC charger and carrying case. At any level it takes work and a few sacrifices. But with CIE, it's worth it. Life is not just a bowl of cherries, and we all know it.

You fight for what you get. You get what you fight for. If you want a thorough, practical, working knowledge of electronics, come to CIE. You can learn electronics at home by spending just 12 hard-working hours a week, two hours a day. Or, would you rather go bowling? Your success is up to you. At CIE, you earn your diploma. It is not handed to you simply for putting in hours. But the hours you do put in will be on your schedule, not ours.

You don't have to go to a classroom. The classroom comes to you. Why electronics training? Today the world depends on technology. And the "brain" of technology is electronics. Every year, companies the world over are finding new ways to apply the wonders of electronics to control and program manufacturing, processing And the more electronics applications there are, the greater the need will be for trained technicians to keep sophisticated equipment finely tuned and operating efficiently.

That means career opportunities in the eighties and beyond. Which CIE training fits you? CIE home study courses are designed for ambitious people at all entry levels. People who may have: 1. No previous electronics knowledge, but do have an interest in it; 2. Some basic knowledge or experience in electronics; 3. In-depth working experience or prior training in electronics. You can start where you fit and fit where you start, then go on from there to your Diploma, FCC License and career.

Many people can be taught electronics. There is no mystery to learning electronics. At CIE you simply start with what you know and build on it to develop the knowledge and techniques that make you a specialist. Thousands of CIE graduates have learned to master the simple principles of electronics and operate or maintain even the most sophisticated electronics equipment.

CIE specializes exclusively in electronics. Why CIE? CIE is the largest independent home study school that specializes exclusively in electronics. Nothing else. CIE has the electronics course that's right for you. Learning electronics is a lot more than memorizing a laundry list of facts about circuits and transistors.

Electronics is interesting! It is based on recent developments in the industry. It's built on ideas. So, look for a program that starts with ideas and builds on them. Look to CIE. Programmed learning. Each lesson uses famous "programmed learning" methods to teach you important principles.

You explore them, master them completely, before you start to apply them. You thoroughly understand each step before you go on to the next. You learn at your own pace. And, beyond theory, some courses come fully equipped with electronics gear the things you see in technical magazines to actually let you perform hundreds of checking, testing, and analyzing projects.

Experienced specialists work closely with you. Even though you study at home, you are not alone! Each time you return a completed lesson, you can be sure it will be reviewed, graded and returned with appropriate instructional help. When you need additional individual help, you get it fast and in writing from the faculty technical specialist best qualified to answer your question in terms you can understand. For others, some employers tend to consider your license a mark in your favor.

Either way, your license is government -certified proof of your knowledge and skills. It sets you apart from the crowd. More than half of CIE's courses prepare you to pass the government - administered exam.

In continuing surveys, nearly 4 out of 5 graduates who take the exam get their licenses! You can be among the winners. Today is the day. Send now. Fill in and return the postage -free card attached. If some other ambitious person has removed it, cut out and mail the coupon.

You'll get a FREE school catalog plus complete information on independent home study. For your convenience, we'll try to have a CIE representative contact you to answer any questions you may have. O YES That error was verified by my local dealer. I wrote to Tandy at the address listed in your magazine.

That was over a month ago, and I thought that you might be interested to learn that no one has had the decency to acknowledge either the probable software problem or my letter. Naturally, my impression is that the sales for Tandy stop short of customer service. Thank you for your attention and for a truly informative magazine. I am distressed to hear that you discovered a programming bug, notified Radio Shack, and that no one has gotten back to you to solve or confirm your problem.

Not having seen a copy of the article in the October issue of Radio -Electronics to which you referred, and not knowing which address you were told to write to, I cannot comment on why there has been no response to your problem. The 14 color -coded and crossindexed modular units in the Hobby-Blox system can create projects as simple or complex as you want them to be. And solderless, reusable modules compatible with DIP's of all sizes make even the most elaborate systems a snap Germany The only programming error which we have found since releasing the "Color Computer Learning Lab" is in the chapter covering Sorts Lesson The sort routine, as shown in the manual and on the tape, will not sort the last value.

That change should be made on pages 93 and 98 of your manual and to the program tape. Our customer -service group has this correction, and should have sent it to you. Worth, TX You should include a phone number where possible, as sometimes it is quicker to call with the information or answer. Radio Shack believes very strongly in support after sale.

I am truly sorry for any inconvenience we may have caused you. Be assured that we will make every effort to assure that it does not happen again. That isn't so; we have several Panasonic NV VHS decks, as well as some Sony Beta SLO- decks, both of which have two -channel audio, and have been giving us excellent service, since we put them into use last summer.

On page 46, the last sentence in the first paragraph of column 3 should read: "That higher bias also results in a higher gain in the peak mode than in the CX mode when expansion is not taking place. I'm sure that I confused the draftsman, because my schematic shows pin 11 of IC4 connected both to volts and ground. In any case, pin 11 of IC4 should go to ground, and not to volts.

We will pack an errata slip with each kit -part order to catch those three points. The only other potential problem that I noted is that the print of the PC board seems to have blurred lightly, and you may get complains of shorting between adjacent conductors, because the board is so tightly laid out. Aside from that, I am delighted with the article.

JOEL M. Among them were Home Box Office, which will operate on transponder 15; RCTV, the new service offering "The Entertainment Channel" of cultural and theatrical performances, which purchased transponder 11; Warner Amex Satellite will use transponder four; UTV Cable Network, a new entertainment and merchandising service, will have transponder 23; Inner City Broadcasting will go on transponder 16, and Bill Batts, an individual representing a Tennessee religious broadcasting group, will transmit on transponder three.

All of those allocations are in addition to the previous commitments-including some video as well as data services-which were already set for the new bird. Meanwhile, some of the new Satcom IV residents are expanding their other transponder activities. HBO, of course, is well ensconced on several other current and future birds. In keeping with official Washington's policy of "deregulation," the FCC has decided not to establish a formal teletext technical standard for the U.

That means that competing French, British, and Canadian technologies will have to fight it out to win allies who will use their respective technologies on U. CBS says that it intends to begin transmitting teletext nationally during ; that could encourage its affiliates to adopt the French Antiope format, which CBS favors.

Although it won't adopt formal teletext standards, the FCC is currently considering a number of related technical issues. The Commission will consider the possibility of permitting teletext to be transmitted via lines 14 through 18, plus lines 20 and 21 of the vertical blanking -interval. The FCC is also considering possible future use of lines , using a phased -in schedule, once it is confirmed that those lines won't cause visual degradation of regular video images on TV receivers.

The continuing scramble skyward by several leading program suppliers promises to offer ever -more attractive shows during the coming year. Among the newest entries is "The Disney Channel," a service due to get under way early next year It will use two transponders aboard Westar V, which will be launched this fall.

Walt Disney Productions and Westinghouse Broadcasting are cooperating to develop the 16 -hour -per - day channel of pay-cable programming. American Satellite Co. The electronic feed, due to get under way in July will provide cable -TV subscribers with master - tape -quality digital music for listening and licensed recording.

Cable subscribers will need a special decoder to input the high -quality audio feed into their tape recorders. Comsat has proposed to provide the first full-time satellite TV service from the U. The new service, due to begin in Fall , will permit continuous video transmission from the U. Comsat officials say that the type of international feed, which will be uplinked from a new facility in Southern California and travel via a Pacific Intelsat bird, is the forerunner of a "new kind of international TV service which will develop in the next few years.

The new Sinclair ZX81 is the most powerful, yet easy -to -use computer ever offered for anywhere near. Don't let the price fool you. The ZX81 has just about everything you could ask for in a personal computer. Just look at what you get: Continuous J display, including moving graphics Multi -dimensional string and numerical arrays Plus shipping and handling. It hooks up to any television set to produce a clear 32 -column by 24 -line display.

And you can use a regular cassette recorder to store and recall programs by name. So in just a few minutes, with no special skills or tools required, you can upgrade your ZX80 to have all the powerful features of the ZX If you're not completely satisfied, just return it to Sinclair Research and we'll give you a full refund. And if you have a problem with your ZX81, send it to Sinclair Research within 90 days and we'll repair or replace it at no charge.

We're constantly coming out with new programs, so we'll send you our latest software catalog with your computer. We'll send complete, easy - to -follow instructions on how you can assemble your ZX81 in just a few hours. All you have to supply is the soldering iron. How to order Sinclair Research is the world's largest manufacturer of personal computers.

The ZX81 represents the latest technology in microelectronics, and it picks up right where the ZX80 left off. Thousands are selling every week. We urge you to place your order for the new ZX81 today. The sooner you order, the sooner you can start enjoying your own computer. To order by mail, please use the oupon. We regret that we cannot accept purchase orders or C. CALL Ask for operator In Ohio call In Canada call Ask for operator Phones open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. These numbers are for orders only.

For information, you must write to Sinclair Research Ltd. PAIA Electronics. Fun, Too! Use my new method in guidebook form. This space -travel spinoff is sure-fire, so it has a simple guarantee - just return it for an immediate refund ifyou are not astounded at the problems you're solving with it! But the point is - you won't want to send it back.

For this is the easiest, fastest shortcut ever! The day you receive your copy in the mail you'll want to put it to work. It's that exciting and helpful. My name is Dr. George McCarty. I teach math at the University of California. I guide you with examples you follow step-by-step on your calculator - you do simple exercises - then you solve practical problems with real precision!

Need to evaluate functions, areas, volumes - solve equations - use curves, trig, polar coordinates - find limits for sequences and series? It's all here! If you're in the biological, social or physical sciences, you'll be doing Bessel functions, carbon dating, Gompertz' growth curves, half-life, future value, marginal costs, motion, cooling, probability, pressure - and plenty more even differential equations. Important numerical techniques? McCluney, Jr. For ten years I have been trying to get the theory of calculus through my head, using home -study courses.

It was not until I had your book that it became clear what the calculus was all about. Now I can go through the other books and see what they are trying to do. Freedman of the U. Math Review, states: "There can be no question as to the usefulness of this book Get my complete kit, with a TI calculator, plus its p. As pennywise Ben Franklin said, "An investment in knowledge pays the best dividends. Send for it today. Be sure to give me your complete mailing address with your check or money order.

If you want to charge it Visa or MC , tell me your card no. Prompt shipment guaranteed. Thank you! CET No. Every 10 seconds, a burglary takes place somewhere in the United States. Luckily, we have two unique products to help keep you from becoming another crime statistic.

Portable intrusion alarm How can you protect your home or business without spending a fortune on a perimeter security system? How about when you're sleeping in a hotel room, an easy mark for the growing population of hotel burglars? Simply place the pocket -sized SensAleir in any room, aiming the sensor towards doors or windows. As soon as an intruder enters, the movement triggers a piercing alarm. At home, a SensAlert in every room protects you while you're in the house.

It's different from and less expensive than perimeter security systems, which are turned on while you're away. Even place SensAlert at your backyard gate while you sunbathe; the tone tells you someone's arrived. Carry a SensAlert in your briefcase or pocket when you travel, to protect the entire hotel room, not just the door.

There's no installation and no electric wire; SensAlert is battery - operated. It can be set to work either in the daytime or at night. A free sign for your door knob is included with each order. It warns that the room is protected by SensAlert. Put SensAlert in your desk drawer at the office. It will go off if anyone opens it while you're out.

A built-in light allows you to use SensAlert as an emergency flashlight. The alarm can also be triggered manually, for a distress signal. Plug-in theft protection Valuable electrical equipment is at the top of a burglar's hit list. Typewriters, adding machines, TV's, stereos, tape recorders, power tools.

It only takes a few seconds to unplug and carry off a TV or typewriter. A quick, easy theft and resale. You're vulnerable at home and at the office. Before Alertmate'M, you had two choices: bolt appliances to furniture, or invest in a costly and complex security system.

Now, you can simply plug the Alertmate into the wall outlet, secure it with one screw, and plug in the appliance. If a thief pulls out the plug, a piercing alarm goes off. And keeps going. A definite theft deterrent! The only way to deactivate the alarm is to plug the appliance back in, or dial the correct number code.

The alarm will also ring if the cord is cut. A free sticker is included. It states that the equipment is protected by Alertmate, and gives you a space to write in the name of an individual who has the combination. When you want to move equipment yourself, you simply deactivate the alarm with the combination.

Protect each piece of expensive equipment inexpensively and easily, with Alertmate. Credit card holders: use our toll free number. And NTS is the only home study school that enables you to train for this booming field by working with your own production -model microcomputer. We'll explain the principles of troubleshooting and testing your microcomputer and, best of all, we'll show you how to program it to do what you want. You'll use a digital multimeter, a digital logic probe and other sophisticated testing gear to learn how to localize problems and solve them.

Send for the full color catalog in the electronics area of your choice-discover all the advantages of hcme study with NTS! Check card for more information. We believe that training on production - model equipment, rather than home-made learning devices, makes home study more exciting and relevant.

That's why you'll find such gear in most of NTS's electronics programs. But no matter which program you choose, NTS's Project Method of instruction helps you quickly to acquire practical know-how. A based unit 4K RAM, expandable.

A based microcomputer with 1K RAM, expandable. Just plug in and read. Fits a li bench space; hand or qu rfrdan ee checkout, matching, calbration, and tracking. Outperforms CC time -ea -Giant meters, and even bridges costing 2 to 5 times as much. Covers 0. Just call our Toll -Free number and one of our experts will answer all your questions about test equipment. The PRO will scan up to 20 channels and has automatic up- and down -search capability as well.

Mobile or fixed -station operation is possible, and a 9 -volt battery is used as a backup to hold memory in case of power failure. The large fluorescent display indicates channel number, frequencies. A priority feature for any of the 20 channels is included.

Functions, channel selections, etc. Model Inside the cabinet The dual -conversion Spurious -signal rejection is specified as 50 db for VHF frequencies; spurious - signal rejection for UHF frequencies is not indicated. The sensitivity of this model is great- ly improved compared to previous Radio Shack scanners.

When checked against a competitive scanner costing nearly twice as much, the apparent sensitivity was nearly identical; when we measured the sensitivity of the two units, they were within 0. The claimed sensitivity was 0. This large 10 x 11 x 3 scanner also includes a screw -on collapsible whip antenna for close -in reception. A rear - apron external -antenna jack allows the use of a rooftop antenna for improving the quality of long distance and weak - signal reception. The instruction manual is well written and useful.

It contains concise step-bystep programming information as well as an informative practical guide to scanner applications and frequency allocations. A block diagram is also included: although it would be of little use in the maintenance of the receiver, it does give the technically -inclined user some idea of how the scanner works. Our test Signal sensitivity was found to be uniformly good over all frequency - ranges. Measurements showed the PRO to be virtually identical to the most sensitive of its competitors.

While search and scan speeds are not as rapid as those of some other scanners, the receiver does have a unique feature-a sophisticated window - detector that assures the user that the scanner will stop precisely on frequency.

In this age of bells and whistles, the Realistic PRO offers high performance and straightforward design at a reasonable cost. The Magnameter is a compact instrument, and it comes with a tilt handle that can be used as a bail or stand. Test - leads are permanently connected, and all connections are made with the microwave oven's power switch turned off. The test leads are long enough to let you set the meter on top of the micro- wave -oven chassis.

The two major faults associated with microwave ovens are shorted magnetrons and shorted power transformers. By disconnecting the plate lead to the magnetron and measuring the output voltage of the power supply, then reconnecting the plate lead arid measuring the plate voltage and plate current, you can isolate those two faults very quickly, and that's the name of the game. The Magnameter seems to be built to give good service for a long time.

They've been around for longer than I can remember, at the same address, S. Wyman, Rockford, IL Now. This one is the Magnameter, catalog No It's a specialized microwave oven tester, for analyzing the operation of the magnetron by reading secondary voltage and current. The meter has two ranges, with a toggle switch to select between the two. With the range switch in the HIGH position, the meter reads secondary voltages up to 10 kv.

That rahge is used to measure the plate current of the magnetron, by reading the voltage drop across the plate resistor. For those ovens with no plate resistor, a heavyduty 10 -ohm tester is included, encased in plastic with alligator clips on both ends. That can be connected in the ground loop of the power -supply circuit.

If the oven has a plate resistor of a value other than 10 ohms, a handy conversion chart is included for reading current. The construction of the instrument is good: the case is high -impact plastic. NOR and exclusive - NOR functions; multiple input gates; truth tables, DeMorgan's Laws; canonical forms; logic conventions: Karnaugh mapping; three -state and wired logic. Book 3: Half adders and full adders; sub - tractors; serial and parallel adders; processors and arithmetic logic units ALUS ; multiplication and division systems.

Structure of calculators; key- board encoding; decoding display data; register systems; control unit: program ROM: address decoding; instruction sets; instruction decoding; control program structure. Intel, DEC. National Semiconductor, Fairchild, General Instrument.

Hewlett- Packard. Heath Co. And many, many more, as well as corporations and individuals in over 50 countries. No mathematical knowledge other than simple arithmetic is assumed, though you should have an aptitude for logical thought. If you're not completely satisfied with your courses, simply return them to CLI within 30 days. We'll send you a full refund, plus return postage. It won't cost you a dime, because we'll deduct the cost of your call from the price of the courses you order.

Just send your check or money order payable to Cambridge Learning, Inc. If you don't use the order form, make sure your address is on your check or the envelope, and write "DOS" Design of Digital Systems. We pay all shipping costs. We also accept company purchase orders. Orde at no obligation today. Ta Cambridge Leming Ina. Uses the most powerful restoration method known with minimal danger to the CRT.

Resolves to 0. Outputs: Sine, square or triangle Variable Amplitude: 15 V p -p, open circuit; 7. Model Frequency: Hz to 5 mhz in 8 ranges. Van - 5 mhz in 7 ranges Outputs: able Amplitude: 20 V p -p, open Sine, square, triangle or haver- circuit 10 V p -p, into 50 ohms. Four Instruments II One Model Four instruments in one package- sweep generator, function generator, pulse generator, tone - burst generator Covers. Variable hold -off for pulse train display. Single - sweep for nonrepetitive wave- forms.

Single easy -to -use switch Separate diode test function. Low power resistance range. An all purpose instrument for basic measurement needs. Five ranges for AC and DC voltage measurements. Four ranges for AC and DC current tests. Six resistance ranges Meter Model time -proven ranges.

Direct dial reading of Amp -Clamp ranges. Only 2 batteries Touch selection and control of functions, ranges and power. Large 0. TECH Has 0. All features of Model plus capability to check continuity and logic levels, measure temp with K -type thereto - couples and capture peak readings of transients.

LCD analog Bargraph to indicate nulls, peaks and trends. Differential peak hold captures maximom peak: and minimum values of complex waveforms. True RMS measuring capability. Dual Trace Oscilloscopes Model For the electronic measurement and display of frequency, period, interval and counted events. LCD display. J Economically priced, general-purpose oscilloscopes. Front panel X -Y operation ideal for phase -shift analysis, sweep alignment and vectorscope service Model LBO A only nanosec rise time for easy viewing of high speed pulses and wave forms.

In grey, black, white and tan. Three diop-er, 13" focus standard on all models 45" reach. The ' diameter lens supplemented by a 40 -watt standard ap, ance bulb A incandescent bulb. Sold in black only, has an arm reach of 39" and includes a factory installed 3-diopter lens. Now, digital discs are about to make Their debut. During April and May of that year, Holland's Philips Company and Japan's Sony Corporation, in jointly held presentations in Europe and the United States, announced their plans for the introduction of what has come to be known as the compact digital audio disc, or C -DAD.

If the companies meet their production target -dates, Japanese and European music lovers should be able to purchase a new kind of disc player in late , while U. It is capable of playing one hour of stereophonic music per side, and can also hold up to four channels of audio on a side with reduced playing time. Information on the C -DAD disc consists of approximately six billion digital "bits," which are linearly encoded along a helical track of pits and flats.

The tiny pits are about 0. The pits and flats represent the "ones" and "zeros" in the digital code used to store the signals. A solid-state laser beam is used to sense the sequence of pits and flats using a spot of light with a diameter several times smaller than that of a human hair. As shown in Fig. The scanning rate is approximately 4. Variations in the reflected light rays are then converted into digital code and FIG.

Since there is no physical contact between the pickup and the surface of the disc, the pickup must be guided by a dynamic -tracking servo system. The lack of physical contact also means that record wear is totally eliminated.

Unlike the turntables used to play today's analog records, the rotating platter that spins the C -DAD disc has a variable rotational speed rpm when the laser its at the circumference of the disc and around rpm when it is 50 millimeters from the center, the inner radial limit.

Scanning takes place from inside to outside and rotation is counterclockwise. The total storage capacity of the C -DAD disc is over 8 billion bits per side-far more than is necessary for the 60 minutes of playing time that has been standardized for the disc. That provides a great many additional possibillities for designing C -DAD players. Both the Philips and Sony prototype players: that were shown last spring see Fig..

Owners of C -DAD disc players will be able to make use of sophisticated programming circuitry, enabling them to determine which songs they want to hear and in what sequence they want to hear them. Audio quality and performance The frequency response of the sys- 36 PI T and has only recently been disbanded in Japan. A mechanical "groove -type" system developed by Telefunken. The digital sampling -frequency is Some margin, though, is left for high frequency cut-off filtering.

The signal-to-noise ratio for the 16 - bit digitizing format is better than 90 db theoretically, it could be as high as Channel separation is 90 db as well, while total harmonic distortion, referred to peak levels, is 0. As with any true digital -sound system there is no measurable rumble or wow -and -flutter.

Tracking, decoding, and rotational speeds are synchronized by a central clock generator inside the player and the clock is itself governed by information encoded in the track on the disc. Since the digital data representing the music is stored briefly in semiconductor memory in the player before being clocked out at a steady rate to the digital -to -analog converter, there can be no wow or flutter in the conventional sense.

There is also no audible intermodulation-distortion of the type that plagues conventional analog recordings to such a large degree. To fully appreciate the significance of these performance levels, see Table I, which compares the LP record , Hz More than 60 db Max. Competing digital -disc systems Of the many digital -audio disc systems that have surfaced over the last several years, two besides the C -DAD system have been successfully demonstrated and been under consideration by a 51 -member Digital -Audio Disc Council.

That group deliberated about standardization for about three years Discs for the variable -capacitance system AHD are made of conductive materials. As a miniature metal electrode follows the pits, signals, represented by changes in electrostatic capacitance, are detected. To maintain the necessary accuracy, the pits are engraved on the surface of the disc along with pilot signals impressed on either side of the audio signal pits.

Since there are no physical grooves impressed into its surface, the pilot signals are used as part of a dynamic -tracking servo system to keep the electrode stylus properly positioned along the signal track of the AHD audio disc. In the mechanical system developed by Telefunken, playback is accomplished in a manner similar to that used by ordinary analog players see Fig.

That is, signals cut into the grooves of the disc are first converted into mechanical vibrations as the stylus traces them and the vibrations are then transmitted through a pickup arm to a piezoelectric converter, where they are changed into electrical signals. Of the three, only the Sony - Philips and the JVC systems seem likely to reach the marketplace in the near future.

JVC's argument in favor of its system is based largely upon the fact that a single player would be able to FIG. Numbers in parentheses at right indicate how many of each piece are producec:. The JVC AHD disc, like its companion VHD disc, is a little over 10 inches in diameter and comes supplied in a "caddy" or holder that protects the disc surface when it is not being played.

The smaller, optically -tracked, C -DAD disc requires no such protective sleeve, of course, and is in no way affected by dirt or dust on its surface since the focal point of the laser beam is beneath the transparent surface of the disc. An important point that has been emphasized many times by Sony and Philips is that the small C -DAD disc and its correspondingly small player can easily be adapted for use in cars and other moving vehicles, since the vibration of a vehicle should have little or no effect upon laser tracking.

The trend towards C -DAD There seems to be a growing trend towards endorsement of the C -DAD system by equipment manufacturers and "software" recorded material producers around the world. Matsushita Electric Company whose line of brands includes Panasonic.

On the hardware side, companies such as Marantz have already demonstrated their own versions of players which are compatible with the Sony -Philips optical -laser disc system. And, while the 51 -member Digital Audio Council mentioned earlier did not specifically endorse the C -DAD system, its final report noted its compact size and its applicability to mobile use, which many interpreted as being just about as close to an endorsement as such a committee would ever be likely to come.

How C -DAD discs are made Once you get past the hurdle of paying for a C -DAD optical -laser player about the price of a high -end turntable , the software or discs themselves should be no more expensive, on a "per- minute -of-music" basis, than high - quality LP records. The process of making digital discs is quite different from the process currently used to make analog LP records, but once it has been mastered, it should be possible to turn out the new discs on a mass - production basis that will reduce disc prices drastically.

Mechanical cutting -techniques are impractical for digital -disc production because the pits to be carved are far too small. Instead, the process shown in Fig.

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