## Non investing op amp multisim 11 mVpp to a maximum of 20Vpp, using a non-inverting operational amplifier. Schematic: Schematic #1 Task 1 Schematic. Theory of Operation. It stresses the popular series- parallel (VCVS or non-inverting voltage amplifier) form to show how bandwidth, distortion, input impedance, etc. inverting input, pin 2 on the op-amp, because of the high input Use Multisim to simulate the non-inverting amplifier shown in. Figure 9. UCITS INVESTING IN ETFS

There are some non-idealities you may notice, though we will usually ignore them when doing analysis of the circuit. When the output reaches these limits the op amp is said to be saturated. While this seems fast you may see this effect at high frequencies in some of your circuits.

Procedure: The breadboards and signal generators are in the cabinets at the back of the room; the capacitors, comparators, op-amps and resistors are in the cabinets that are on the wall at the back of the classroom portion of room As you are performing the lab, refer to the instructions for the report to make sure that you are recording all necessary information. Set the magnitude of Vcc to 12 volts you will have to check this with a voltmeter.

You should verify that the resistor values are correct by reading them off the resistor they are sometimes in the wrong drawer. Hook up the oscilloscope so you can see both vin and vout. What is the gain? What is the maximum output swing the largest output you can get before distortion starts? How does this agree with the manufacturer's specification? Compare the measured slew rate to the manufacturer's specification. Why is an amplifier with a gain of 1 useful?

If the output is saturated you may have to adjust the offset of the signal generator. From the component values predict the shape and peak to peak amplitude of the output assume Rf has no effect on the circuit; i. The derivation and experimental results should be included in your report.

In this circuit and most throughout this semester the ground reference for Vin and Vout is implicit and is not shown. Try removing it and explain what happens. Hint: there are some DC i. For this part of the lab you will be using a comparator, which is a device that has the same schematic symbol as the op-amp, but it exhibits very different behavior I don't know whose idea it was to have the same schematic symbol for both. The comparator is a device that is designed to be used without negative feedback and often with positive feedback , so its output is always either at its maximum value, or its minimum value.

In other words the output is digital, either logic 1 high or logic 0 low. We will be using an LM comparator. A pinout is shown below from the LM datasheet. The circuit compares the two inputs. However, what makes this device a little hard to understand but very useful , a high output is characterized by the output appearing as an open circuit no current in or out , and a low output is characterized by zero voltage a short circuit to pin 1, which is typically connected to ground.

You can think of the output as a switch connected to ground -- for a low output the switch is closed shorted to ground i. What makes it useful is that we can use this to switch high voltages for motors, lights Consider the circuit shown below. This symbol indicates that the device determines if one input is "greater than" the other i.

Comparator Circuit The non-inverting input is at 2. Whenever the input voltage is below the threshold voltage, the output is high. Since the output is effectively an open circuit, no current flows, so there is no voltage across R3, and the output voltage is 5 volts.

When the input is above the threshold, the output is low. This is illustrated in the diagram below. In this configuration the comparator simply "compares" the input against a threshold and delivers a binary output that indicates whether the input is above or below the threshold.

However this circuit has some drawbacks in certain situations. Imagine that the input above represents the output from a light sensor over the course of a day, and we want the output of the circuit to change once per day. By looking at the input, there is obviously one large peak, but the output counts 4 peaks. The Schmitt trigger is a circuit that can overcome this type of problem which can occur with any typically slowly varying input.

Schmitt Trigger A schematic for a Schmitt trigger is given below. When the output is high, the threshold voltage will be 2. This creates two separate thresholds. If we apply the same input to this new circuit, we now get one transition of the output, because of the changing threshold voltage. When the output is high, the threshold is high -- when the output is low, the threshold is low. Note that the output now only goes up to 2. Make sure you understand how this circuit works. It is a bit tricky both because the circuit is non-linear, and because the value of the output is not a single-valued function of the input.

This is manifested by the fact that the output can either be high 2. If your input goes outside these bounds, the circuit may not behave as expected. You will need to use the DC offset on the signal generator, and make sure that the oscilloscope is DC coupled. If you are not sure what this means, please ask me. Predict, then measure, the output waveform. Though not shown on this diagram, pin 1 should be connected to ground. Repeat for the Schmitt trigger circuit shown below.

Get a printout of your results. Notice that the output of the Schmitt trigger remains constant if the input stays below or above some critical threshold. Figure 7. Instruments toolbar. Select the Oscilloscope from the menu and place this onto the schematic.

Wire the Channel A and Channel B terminals of the Oscilloscope to both the input and output of the amplifier circuit. Place a ground component and connect it to the negative terminals of the Oscilloscope. Right-click the wire connected to Channel B and select Segment color. Select a shade of blue and click the OK button.

The schematic should look like Figure 8. Figure 8. Connecting the Oscilloscope to the schematic. Select Simulate»Run to start the simulation. Double-click on the Oscilloscope to open its Front Panel and observe the simulation results see Figure 9. As expected, the input signal is being amplified by a factor of 2. Stop the simulation by pressing the red stop button in the simulation toolbar.

Figure 9. Simulation results. In preparation for this we need to take into consideration that sources power, signal and ground are virtual components and, therefore, they cannot be transferred to Ultiboard. Also, all components must include footprint information. It is a good practice to replace power sources and ground with connectors. Remove V1, V2, V3 and the Oscilloscope from the schematic.

Do not remove the On-page connectors. Connecting the terminal block. Place another terminal block on the workspace. This connector will be used to connect the input and output signals. Connect pin 1 of the connector to pin 3 input of the opamp. Connect pin 2 of the connector to pin 1 output of the opamp. Connect pin 3 of the connector to ground. The schematic will look like the next figure: Figure Schematic with terminal blocks.

Ultiboard will open automatically. Click OK to accept all the actions listed in the Import Netlist window. Ultiboard will create a default board outline. Note that all the parts are placed outside of the board outline and the yellow lines ratsnests identifying the connections between pins, as shown in Figure Figure Default board outline and parts transferred from Multisim. For this exercise we will use a 2x2 inch board. Follow these steps to resize the board outline. Locate the Design Toolbox on the left side of the screen.

Select the Layers tab and double-click Board Outline to enable this layer, as shown below. Design Toolbox. The Layers tab of the Design Toolbox allows you to move between layers of your design and control the appearance of the layers. Go to the toolbar area and locate the Select toolbar, referring to the following figure. Select toolbar. The Select toolbar contains the functions used to control selection filters. In other words, these filters control what can be selected by the mouse pointer.

Disable all the filters except Enable selecting other objects. Double-click the board outline on the workspace area to open the Rectangle Properties window.  ### ALEX FITZ FOREX STRATEGY

In the non-inverting configuration, the input signal is applied across the non-inverting input terminal Positive terminal of the op-amp. As we discussed before, Op-amp needs feedback to amplify the input signal. This is generally achieved by applying a small part of the output voltage back to the inverting pin In case of non-inverting configuration or in the non-inverting pin In case of inverting pin , using a voltage divider network.

Non-inverting Operational Amplifier Configuration In the upper image, an op-amp with Non-inverting configuration is shown. The signal which is needed to be amplified using the op-amp is feed into the positive or Non-inverting pin of the op-amp circuit, whereas a Voltage divider using two resistors R1 and R2 provide the small part of the output to the inverting pin of the op-amp circuit.

These two resistors are providing required feedback to the op-amp. In an ideal condition, the input pin of the op-amp will provide high input impedance and the output pin will be in low output impedance. The amplification is dependent on those two feedback resistors R1 and R2 connected as the voltage divider configuration. Due to this, and as the Vout is dependent on the feedback network, we can calculate the closed loop voltage gain as below. Also, the gain will be positive and it cannot be in negative form.

The gain is directly dependent on the ratio of Rf and R1. Now, Interesting thing is, if we put the value of feedback resistor or Rf as 0, the gain will be 1 or unity. And if the R1 becomes 0, then the gain will be infinity. But it is only possible theoretically. In reality, it is widely dependent on the op-amp behavior and open-loop gain. Op-amp can also be used two add voltage input voltage as summing amplifier. Practical Example of Non-inverting Amplifier We will design a non-inverting op-amp circuit which will produce 3x voltage gain at the output comparing the input voltage.

We will make a 2V input in the op-amp. We will configure the op-amp in noninverting configuration with 3x gain capabilities. We selected the R1 resistor value as 1. R2 is the feedback resistor and the amplified output will be 3 times than the input. Voltage Follower or Unity Gain Amplifier As discussed before, if we make Rf or R2 as 0, that means there is no resistance in R2, and Resistor R1 is equal to infinity then the gain of the amplifier will be 1 or it will achieve the unity gain.

As there is no resistance in R2, the output is shorted with the negative or inverted input of the op-amp. As the gain is 1 or unity, this configuration is called as unity gain amplifier configuration or voltage follower or buffer. As we put the input signal across the positive input of the op-amp and the output signal is in phase with the input signal with a 1x gain, we get the same signal across amplifier output. Thus the output voltage is the same as the input voltage.

The amplification is dependent on those two feedback resistors R1 and R2 connected as the voltage divider configuration. Due to this, and as the Vout is dependent on the feedback network, we can calculate the closed loop voltage gain as below. Also, the gain will be positive and it cannot be in negative form. The gain is directly dependent on the ratio of Rf and R1.

Now, Interesting thing is, if we put the value of feedback resistor or Rf as 0, the gain will be 1 or unity. And if the R1 becomes 0, then the gain will be infinity. But it is only possible theoretically. In reality, it is widely dependent on the op-amp behavior and open-loop gain. Op-amp can also be used two add voltage input voltage as summing amplifier. Practical Example of Non-inverting Amplifier We will design a non-inverting op-amp circuit which will produce 3x voltage gain at the output comparing the input voltage.

We will make a 2V input in the op-amp. We will configure the op-amp in noninverting configuration with 3x gain capabilities. We selected the R1 resistor value as 1. R2 is the feedback resistor and the amplified output will be 3 times than the input. Voltage Follower or Unity Gain Amplifier As discussed before, if we make Rf or R2 as 0, that means there is no resistance in R2, and Resistor R1 is equal to infinity then the gain of the amplifier will be 1 or it will achieve the unity gain.

As there is no resistance in R2, the output is shorted with the negative or inverted input of the op-amp. As the gain is 1 or unity, this configuration is called as unity gain amplifier configuration or voltage follower or buffer. As we put the input signal across the positive input of the op-amp and the output signal is in phase with the input signal with a 1x gain, we get the same signal across amplifier output.

Thus the output voltage is the same as the input voltage. So, it will follow the input voltage and produce the same replica signal across its output. This is why it is called a voltage follower circuit. The input impedance of the op-amp is very high when a voltage follower or unity gain configuration is used. Sometimes the input impedance is much higher than 1 Megohm. So, due to high input impedance, we can apply weak signals across the input and no current will flow in the input pin from the signal source to amplifier.

On the other hand, the output impedance is very low, and it will produce the same signal input, in the output. In the above image voltage follower configuration is shown.

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Inverting and Non-Inverting Amplifier Simulation using Multisim

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Non- Inverting Amplifier - Practical using Multisim

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